Microscopes | Into The World Of Microscopy

microscopes into the world of microscopy

Microscopes have always been the go to tool

whenever we wanted to see the microscopic

world around us, its the little things in life

that make us wonder how this big blue world

of ours came to be, Microscopes are an

important scientific instrument that enables

the user to see objects too small for the

naked eye. Microscopy is a branch of

microscopy which deals with studying 

minute structures on different types of

materials by means of their magnifying

properties. microscopes allow us guess if not

fully answer that question. In this post we

take a good look through lenses into the world

microscopes. how they work and some 

interesting facts about them!

microscopes - into the world of microscopy (pinterest pin)
Microscopes - Into The World Of Microscopy (Pinterest Pin)

What are Microscopes

close up of examining of test sample under the microscope in laboratory
3D illustration of a white optical microscope By RouDhi
3D illustration of a white optical microscope

Microscopes are instruments that are use to

see things to small for the human eye. The

term microscopy is the science of studying

things small objects with instruments such as

a microscope. Microscopes are used in many

different fields of science. The word

microscope is derived from the Greek words

‘mikros’ meaning small, and ‘skopein’ meaning to look at. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless

aided by a microscope. One example of a microscope is the stereo microscope which aids scientists to

view three-dimensional objects more clearly by using two lenses side by side. The lenses are connected to

a tube which has the eyepiece at one end and an image-forming lens at its other end. This microscope is

beneficial for viewing objects that have high magnification power such as small insects, plants etc.

Microscopes help in medical diagnosis of disease by examining cells under a microscope. It can identify

certain bacteria, parasites, fungi and looks for cancerous cells in the body. Microscopes are also used to

study geological specimens such as rocks or crystals under a microscope to identify minerals. It is also

helpful when studying microorganisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye like when studying

microorganisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye like certain bacteria, protozoa etc. Microscope 

can help in identifying different types of diseases, parasites and chemicals when studying micros

organisms. Microscopes are important for many different fields of science like in the study of plant

biology, zoology etc.

How Do Microscopes Work?

laboratory micro science medicine microscope research chemistry equipment microscope biotechnology

A microscope consists of a large tube that is

usually around 30 cm long. At the end there

are two eyepieces where both eyes can be

placed to look through it. There’s also an

adjustable dial which allows the user to

change the focus and brightness of what

parts of a microscope
Parts of a microscope

they’re looking at. At one end, near the light source, there is a mirror or lens that allows the user to focus

on their object. The light source for microscopes are usually halogen lamps, mercury-vapor arcs and

tungsten filament bulbs depending on what type of microscope they’re using. There’s also an adjustable

stage where the specimen can be placed in order to see it clearly. At the other end there is a diaphragm

that can control the amount of light reaching the objective lens. The eyepiece tube holds one or more

lenses, depending on what type of microscope it is.

How Do Microscopes Produce Magnified Images?

microscopic close up of the covid 19 disease

The objective lens of a microscope is at the bottom and has to be below or on top of your specimen. It

collects light from the object you’re examining which then passes through it, where it now magnifies

what’s in front of it. This image can then be seen using another set of lenses that is closer to the eye

called ‘eyepiece’. The eyepiece magnifies the image even more and gives you a clear view of what your

specimen looks like. However, there is only one way to get the correct magnification power which means

image can also be adjusted using a knob depending on how much light you want to view. Microscopes are

instruments that help us see things under a very high magnification power which would be impossible if

we were using our bare eyes. Without microscopes, studying certain specimens can be almost impossible

because they’re either too small or their numbers are so great it’s hard to count them with the naked eye

alone.

How Do Microscopes Use Refraction?

close up shot of microscope at the blood laboratory take with art lighting and blue

Light is a type of electromagnetic radiation that travels in waves. When light hits an object it can either

get reflected back, absorbed by the material or transmitted inside which then changes its direction and

properties depending on what kind of material it’s going into. This change in direction also causes

refraction to take place because different materials have different densities and different indexes of

refraction. This is why when light travels through different substances it changes direction and properties

accordingly to the laws of optics which are governed by Snell’s law, also  known as ‘Snell-Descartes Law’.

This law states that there’s a direct relationship between the angle at which something enters into

another medium and its sines. Microscopes use refraction to magnify the specimen they’re examining by

passing light through it and then projecting that image into either an eyepiece or a screen for you to be

able to see it clearly under high magnification power. Without microscopes, studying certain specimens

can be almost impossible because they’re either too small or their numbers are so great it’s hard to count

them with the naked eye alone.

Can Microscopes Hurt Your Eyes?

Close up shot of microscope with metal lens at laboratory. by Konstantin Kolosov

Some microscopes use very high magnification power which can hurt your eyes if you’re not careful. When

using a microscope, make sure that the lens is clean to begin with and focus it properly on what you want

to see without straining yourself by viewing it for too long at once. Using microscopes often may cause

eye strain but this will only happen if you’re not using it properly. If your eyes are hurting when viewing

something under high magnification power then stop and take a break from looking through the eyepiece

for at least five minutes before continuing with what you were doing.

Where Are Microscopes Used?

medical worker in lab coat and sterile mask, doing a microscope analysis
african-american female scientist, student or tech in lab coat works in modern laboratory
African-american female scientist, student or tech in lab coat works in modern laboratory

Microscopes are used in many different fields

of science such as biology, zoology and even

medical diagnosis. They play a very important

role in the research community because they

allow scientists to study objects that cannot

be seen with the naked eye like cells,

bacteria etc. They’re also beneficial for

examining various types of rocks and minerals

under a microscope. Microscopes are also used

in the medical field for studying diseases by

examining cells.

What Are People Capable Of Seeing While Using A Microscope?

portrait of young middle-eastern scientist looking in microscope

A microscope allows us to see organisms too

small for the human eye. The smallest

micro-organisms such as bacteria and protozoa

can be seen with a light microscope, while

larger viruses require an electron microscope.

Microscopes work by passing on light through

lenses that magnify any objects placed under

them which enables people to view things in

detail without coming in contact with them.

Close up fluorescent vien of green leave by OHishiapply
Close up fluorescent vien of green leave

Can microscopes see atoms?

Atoms are too small to see with a normal

microscope. Atoms can only be seen using an

electron microscope which uses electrons in

place of light waves. Electrons have much

shorter wavelengths than visible light, so they

3d illustration of atom structure under microscope on blue background
3d illustration of atom structure under microscope on blue background

allow us to view objects smaller than the wavelength of seen with a light microscope, but can only be

indirectly worked out from the effects they have on other objects. Microscopes are not able to see an

atom directly because of their size and lack of complex structure. In order for us to observe something we

must bounce some sort of radiation off it. This means that atoms are too small to be observed. Instead,

scientists can only look at the effects of atoms on other objects, for example by seeing what happens

when an atom is hit with a beam of electrons or light particles.

Can Microscopes See Molecules?

Microscopes can’t directly see molecules; they

only show the effects of their presence.

Molecules are too small to be seen with a light

microscope or an electron microscope which is

why scientists need to use different methods

like x-ray crystallography and spectroscopy in

order to work out what in order to work out

what molecules look like. Molecules are far too

small to be seen with a light microscope or

electron microscope. Scientists can only view

tumor cells under microscope labeled with fluorescent molecules
Tumor cells under microscope labeled with fluorescent molecules

the effects of molecules, such as their interactions and reactions with other objects in order to find out

what they look like without seeing them directly. There are indirect ways that scientists use microscopes

to work out how molecules might appear by using methods like X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy.

Can Microscopes See DNA?

An electron microscope can be used to see

DNA which is why scientists that work with

proteins and enzymes use them. It allows us

to look at the arrangement of atoms in a

molecule like DNA, but it’s not possible to

make out any details about the structure

Dna chain genes under microscope view 3d
Dna chain genes under microscope view

since an atomic force microscope (AFM) cannot resolve single molecules; they are simply

too small. DNA is too small to be seen with a light microscope, but can be viewed using an electron

microscope which allows scientists to see the arrangement of atoms in molecules like DNA. However it’s

not possible for us to make out any details about their structure since atomic force microscopes (AFM)

cannot resolve single molecules ; they are simply too small. A light microscope cannot be used to see DNA,

but an electron microscope can and is often used by scientists who work with proteins or enzymes

since it allows them to look at the arrangement of atoms in a molecule like DNA without being able to

make out any details about its structure. This is because atomic force microscopes (AFM) cannot resolve

single molecules; they are simply too small.

Can Microscopes See Electrons?

Electrons can be viewed using an electron

microscope which is why they are used in

many experiments. Electron microscopes use

electrons instead of light waves to magnify

objects and allow us to see something that

neither a normal or scanning microscope

virus and bacteria under electron microscope
Virus and bacteria under electron microscope

would be able to view like the interior structure of living cells. An electron microscope uses electrons in

place of light waves to magnify objects and allow us to see something that neither a normal or scanning

microscope would be able to view like the interior structure of living cells. Electron microscopes use

electrons in place of light waves, instead of visible light, so we can see what things look like at much

higher resolutions than with either a normal or scanning microscope. This allows us to view the interior

structure of living cells, for example. An electron microscope uses electrons instead of light waves to

magnify objects and allow us to see what things look like at much higher resolutions than with either a

normal or scanning microscope. This gives scientists access to parts that are not visible using other types

of microscopes which is why they are used in many experiments. Electrons can be viewed using an

electron microscope which is why scientists often use them to conduct experiments. An electron

microscope uses electrons instead of light waves, unlike a normal or scanning microscope, so we

can see what things look like at much higher resolutions and gain access to areas that would not

otherwise be visible with other types of microscopes.

History of Microscopes

vintage microscope
busch, german physicist, 1932. at science and society picture library
Busch, german physicist, 1932. at Science and Society Picture Library
Electromagnetic lenses
Electromagnetic lenses

In 1962, Hans Busch developed the

electromagnetic lens In 1928, according to

Dennis Gabor, physicist by the name of Leo

Szilard tried to convince him to build an

electron microscope, which he had a patent

for. In 1931, the physicist by the name of Ernst

Ruska and a electrical engineer by the name

name of Max Knoll created the first ever

prototype electron microscope, capable of 400

power magnification. In May of the same year

Reinhold Rudenberg Schuckertwerke) obtain a

patent for a electron microscope. 1932, Ernst

Lubcke of Siemens & Halske, built and obtain

ernst ruska, german physicist (1906-1988)
Ernst Ruska, german physicist (1906-1988)
ernst ruska, replica of the first electron microscope
Ernst Ruska, replica of the first electron microscope

images from an electron microscope. In 1933,

Ruska built the first electron microscope to

surpass the resolution limit obtainable by a

optical microscope. In 1937 (Four years later),

Ernest Ruska, Bodo Von Borries and employed

Helmut Ruska, Ernst’s brother, with the help of

Siemens financial support were to develop

applications for the microscope, mostly with

biological specimens. Also in the same year,

Manfred von Ardenne pioneered the scanning

prof. manfred v ardenne
Prof. Manfred V Ardenne
first scanning electron microscope
First Scanning Electron Microscope

electron microscope. In 1938 at the University

of Toronto, Eli Franklin Burton along with other

who’s names are Cecil Hall, James Hillier, and

Albert Prebus, constructed the first north

american microscope. In 1939, Siemens

produced an TEM (transmission electron 

microscope). Microscopes of today are capable

of two-million magnification although all are

base on prototypes present from the ideas

from Ernst Ruska.

Types of Microscopes

microscope vector icons set. Isometric set of microscope vector icons for web design

There are many types of microscopes, and

they may be grouped in different ways, a

particular way to describe them is to look at

the way the instruments interact with a

sample to create an image either by sending a

beam of light or electrons to a sample

in its optical path, or by scanning across, and

a short distance from the surface of a sample

using a probe. We take a look at the different

types of microscopes.

Science equipment and medical tools to looking micro scale
Science equipment and medical tools to looking micro scale

Optical Microscope

Optical: This is the most common type of

microscope (also the first invented). This is an

optical instrument which contains one or two

lenses producing an enlarged image of a

sample placed in the focal plane.

optical microscope and laboratory supplies on a white table
Optical microscope and laboratory supplies on a white table

Electron Microscopes

Electron: Microscopes that use a beam of

accelerated electrons as there source of light.

The wavelength of an electron can be up to

100,000 times shorter than that of visible light

science modern laboratory equipment electron microscope
Science modern laboratory equipment electron microscope

photons. Electron microscopes have a much higher power input than those which use light, which is good

because the reveal the structure of a specimen. Electron microscopes use shaped magnetic fields to form

an electron optical lens that are analogous to the optical lens of an optical microscope.

Scanning Probes

Scanning Probe: The different types of

scanning probes arise from the many types of

interactions that occur when a small probe is

scanned over a  specimen. These can be

recorded or mapped as a function or location

on the surface to form a characterization map.

There are three types of scanning probe

microscopes.

confocal optical laser scanning microscope for biological samples investigation
Confocal optical laser scanning microscope for biological samples investigation

Types Of Probes

Atomic Force Probe (AFM)

Atomic Force (AFM): This probe is scanned

across a sample, and the forces that cause an

interaction between the probe and the surface

of  the sample is scanned and mapped.

An atomic force microscopes at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the Polish Academy of Science in Krakow By dominika zara
An atomic force microscopes at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the Polish Academy of Science in Krakow

Near-Field Probe

Near-Field: Similar to an AFM, but this probe

has a light source in an optical fiber covered

with a tip that has usually an aperture for

light to pass through. This microscope can

capture transmitted or reflected light to

measure localized properties of the surface,

mainly a biological specimen.

witec alpha 300s scanning nearfield optical microscope
Witec Alpha 300S scanning nearfield optical microscope

Scanning-Tunneling Probe

Scanning-Tunneling: A microscope that has a

metal tip with a single apical atom, the tip has

a tube attached to in which the current

flows. The tip is then scanned over the surface

of a sample that conducts electricity until a

current is present, the current is kept in a

constant flow by computer movement of the

tip and an image is formed by recorded

movement of the tip.

Scanning tunneling microscope by ThoughtCo
Scanning tunneling microscope

How Microscopes Improve Our Lives?

Laboratory Microscope. Scientific and healthcare research background by kurhan
blurred side-view of a student analyzing under microscope
Blurred side-view of a student analyzing under microscope

One example of how microscopes improve our

lives is the improvement in health.

Microscopes have been used to detect

diseases such as cancer and other medical

disorders, which helps us improve our quality 

of life Another way that they’ve improved 

our lives is by allowing for better understanding on a cellular level, thus improving medicine and

agriculture (molecular biology). Microscopes also help us to discover new things. By using microscopy, we

are able to see the world in ways that were previously unimaginable (for example- seeing cells and

molecules). In addition, through technology such as electron probes, scientists have been able to study

objects even further than ever before. There is still much more for us to discover using this technology,

and it is exciting that we are able to do so. Microscopes have even helped engineers can observe how

materials react under pressure (stress testing). This allows them to produce stronger products for

consumers. Microscopes allow scientists and engineers alike to see things that are otherwise

invisible to the human eye. This has helped us improve our lives in many different ways, and there is still

much more that we have yet to uncover!

The Future Of Microscopes

lovely day in the laboratory. top view of smiling young female scientist using microscope

Microscopes have very long and rich history by many people either came up with patents, prototypes of

microscopes that are being used today, or breaking the limited of magnification capability, This is a device

is being used an will continue to be used for many generations to come.

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