Microscopes | Into The World Of Microscopy

microscopes into the world of microscopy

Microscopes have always been the go to tool

whenever we wanted to see the microscopic world

around us, its the little things in life that make us

wonder how this big blue world of ours came

to be, Microscopes are an important scientific

instrument that enables the user to see objects

too small for the naked eye. Microscopy is a

branch of microscopy which deals with studying

minute structures on different types of materials

by means of their magnifying properties.

microscopes allow us guess if not fully answer

that question. In this post we take a good look

through lenses into the world of microscopes. how

they work and some interesting facts about them!

microscopes - into the world of microscopy (pinterest pin)
Microscopes - Into The World Of Microscopy (Pinterest Pin)

What are Microscopes

close up of examining of test sample under the microscope in laboratory
3D illustration of a white optical microscope

Microscopes are instruments that arevuse to see

things to small for the human eye. The term

microscopy is the science of studying things small

objects with instruments such as a microscope.

Microscopes are used in many different fields of

science. The word microscope is derived from the

Greek words ‘mikros’ meaning small, and ‘skopein’

meaning to look at. Microscopic means invisible to

the eye unless aided by a microscope. One

example of a microscope is the stereo microscope

which aids scientists to view three-dimensional

objects more clearly by using two lenses side

by side. The lenses are connected to a tube whichhas the eyepiece at one end and an image-forming lens

at its other end. This microscope is beneficial for viewing objects that have high magnification power such

as small insects, plants etc. Microscopes help in medical diagnosis of disease by examining cells under a

microscope. It can identify certain bacteria, parasites, fungi and looks for cancerous cells in the body.

Microscopes are also used to study geological specimens such as rocks or crystals under a microscope to

identify minerals. It is also helpful when studying microorganisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye

like when studying microorganisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye like certain bacteria, protozoa

etc. Microscope can help in identifying different types of diseases, parasites and chemicals when studying

microorganisms. Microscopes are important for many different fields of science like in the study of plant

biology, zoology etc.

How Do Microscopes Work?

laboratory micro science medicine microscope research chemistry equipment microscope biotechnology

A microscope consists of a large tube that is

usually around 30 cm long. At the end there are

two eyepieces where both eyes can be placed to

look through it. There’s also an adjustable dial

which allows the user to change the focus and

brightness of what they’re looking at. At one end,

near the light source, there is a mirror or lens that

allows the user to focus on their object. The light

source for microscopes are usually halogen lamps,

parts of a microscope
Parts of a microscope

mercury-vapor arcs and tungsten filament bulbs depending on what type of microscope they’re using.

There’s also an adjustable stage where the specimen can be placed in order to see it clearly. At the other

end there is a diaphragm that can control the amount of light reaching the objective lens. The eyepiece

tube holds one or more lenses, depending on what type of microscope it is.

How Do Microscopes Produce Magnified Images?

microscopic close up of the covid 19 disease

The objective lens of a microscope is at the bottom and has to be below or on top of your specimen. It

collects light from the object you’re examining which then passes through it, where it now magnifies

what’s in front of it. This image can then be seen using another set of lenses that is closer to the eye

called ‘eyepiece’. The eyepiece magnifies the image even more and gives you a clear view of what your

specimen looks like. However, there is only one way to get the correct magnification power which means

image can also be adjusted using a knob depending on how much light you want to view. Microscopes are

instruments that help us see things under a very high magnification power which would be impossible if

we were using our bare eyes. Without microscopes, studying certain specimens can be almost impossible

because they’re either too small or their numbers are so great it’s hard to count them with the naked eye

alone.

How do microscopes use refraction?

close up shot of microscope at the blood laboratory take with art lighting and blue

Light is a type of electromagnetic radiation that travels in waves. When light hits an object it can either get

reflected back, absorbed by the material or transmitted inside which then changes its direction and

properties depending on what kind of material it’s going into. This change in direction also causes

refraction to take place because different materials have different densities and different indexes of

refraction. This is why when light travels through different substances it changes direction and properties

accordingly to the laws of optics which are governed by Snell’s law, also  known as ‘Snell-Descartes Law’.

This law states that there’s a direct relationship between the angle at which something enters into

another medium and its sines. Microscopes use refraction to magnify the specimen they’re examining by

passing light through it and then projecting that image into either an eyepiece or a screen for you to be

able to see it clearly under high magnification power. Without microscopes, studying certain specimens can

be almost impossible because they’re either too small or their numbers are so great it’s hard to count

them with the naked eye alone.

Can Microscopes Hurt Your Eyes?

Some microscopes use very high magnification power which can hurt your eyes if you’re not careful. When

using a microscope, make sure that the lens is clean to begin with and focus it properly on what you want

to see without straining yourself by viewing it for too long at once. Using microscopes often may cause eye

strain but this will only happen if you’re not using it properly. If your eyes are hurting when viewing

something under high magnification power then stop and take a break from looking through the eyepiece

for at least five minutes before continuing with what you were doing.

Where Are Microscopes Used?

medical worker in lab coat and sterile mask, doing a microscope analysis
african-american female scientist, student or tech in lab coat works in modern laboratory
African-american female scientist, student or tech in lab coat works in modern laboratory

Microscopes are used in many different fields of

science such as biology, zoology and even medical

diagnosis. They play a very important role in the

research community because they allow scientists

to study objects that cannot be seen with the

naked eye like cells, bacteria etc. They’re also

beneficial for examining various types of

rocks and minerals under a microscope.

Microscopes are also used in the medical field for

studying diseases by examining cells.

 

What Are People Capable Of Seeing While Using A Microscope?

portrait of young middle-eastern scientist looking in microscope

A microscope allows us to see organisms too

small for the human eye. The smallest

microorganisms such as bacteria and protozoa

can be seen with a light microscope, while larger

viruses require an electron microscope.

Microscopes work by passing on light through

lenses that magnify any objects placed under

them which enables people to view things in

detail without coming in contact with them.

Close up fluorescent vien of green leave

Can microscopes see atoms?

Atoms are too small to see with a normal

microscope. Atoms can only be seen using an

electron microscope which uses electrons in place

of light waves. Electrons have much shorter

wavelengths than visible light, so they allow us to

view objects smaller than the wavelength of

visible light. An atom is around 0.00000000001

meters (or one millionth of a millimeter). This is

too small to be seen with the human eye, which

can only see objects up to around 0.01 meters in

size. This is why atoms cannot be

3d illustration of atom structure under microscope on blue background
3d illustration of atom structure under microscope on blue background

seen with a light microscope, but can only be indirectly worked out from the effects they have on other

objects. Microscopes are not able to see an atom directly because of their size and lack of complex

structure. In order for us to observe something we must bounce some sort of radiation off it. This means

that atoms are too small to be observed. Instead, scientists can only look at the effects of atoms on other

objects, for example by seeing what happens when an atom is hit with a beam of electrons

or light particles.

Can Microscopes See Molecules?

Microscopes can’t directly see molecules; they

only show the effects of their presence. Molecules

are too small to be seen with a light microscope

or an electron microscope which is why scientists

need to use different methods like x-ray

crystallography and spectroscopy in order to

work out what Molecules are far too small to be

seen molecules look like. with a light microscope

or electron microscope. Scientists can only

tumor cells under microscope labeled with fluorescent molecules
Tumor cells under microscope labeled with fluorescent molecules

view the effects of molecules, such as their interactions and reactions with other objects in order to find

out what they look like without seeing them directly. There are indirect ways that scientists use

microscopes to work out how molecules might appear by using methods like X-ray crystallography and

spectroscopy.

Can Microscopes See DNA?

An electron microscope can be used to see DNA

which is why scientists that work with proteins

and enzymes use them. It allows us to look at the

arrangement of atoms in a molecule like DNA, but

it’s not possible to make out any details about

the structure since an atomic force microscope

(AFM) cannot resolve single molecules; they are

simply too small. DNA is too small to be seen with

a light microscope, but can be viewed using an

electron microscope which allows scientists to see

the arrangement of atoms in molecules like

DNA. However it’s not possible for us to make out

Dna chain genes under microscope view 3d
Dna chain genes under microscope view

any details about their structure since atomic force microscopes (AFM) cannot resolve single

molecules; they are simply too small. A light microscope cannot be used to see DNA, but an electron

microscope can and is often used by scientists who work with proteins or enzymes since it allows them to

look at the arrangement of atoms in a molecule like DNA without being able to make out any details about

its structure. This is because atomic force microscopes (AFM) cannot resolve single molecules; they are

simply too small.

Can Microscopes See Electrons?

Electrons can be viewed using an electron

microscope which is why they are used in many

experiments. Electron microscopes use electrons

instead of light waves to magnify objects and

allow us to see something that neither a normal

or scanning microscope would be able to view like

the interior structure of living cells. An electron

microscope uses electrons in place of light waves

to magnify objects and allow us to see something

that neither a normal or scanning microscope

would be able to view like the interior

virus and bacteria under electron microscope
Virus and bacteria under electron microscope

structure of living cells. Electron microscopes use electrons in place of light waves, instead of visible light,

so we can see what things look like at much higher resolutions than with either a normal or scanning

microscope. This allows us to view the interior structure of living cells, for example. An electron microscope

uses electrons instead of light waves to magnify objects and allow us to see what things look like at much

higher resolutions than with either a normal or scanning microscope. This gives scientists access to parts

that are not visible using other types of microscopes which is why they are used in many experiments.

Electrons can be viewed using an electron microscope which is why scientists often use them to conduct

experiments. An electron microscope uses electrons instead of light waves, unlike a normal or scanning

microscope, so we can see what things look like at much higher resolutions and gain access to areas that

would not otherwise be visible with other types of microscopes.

History of Microscopes

vintage microscope
busch, german physicist, 1932. at science and society picture library
Busch, german physicist, 1932. at Science and Society Picture Library
Electromagnetic lenses
Electromagnetic lenses

In 1962, Hans Busch developed the

electromagnetic lens In 1928, according to Dennis

Gabor, a physicist by the name of Leo Szilard tried

to convince him to build an electron microscope,

which he had a patent for. In 1931, the physicist by

the name of Ernst Ruska and a electrical engineer

by the name of Max Knoll created the first ever

prototype electron microscope, capable of 400

power magnification. In May of the same year

Reinhold Rudenberg Schuckertwerke) obtain a

patent for a electron microscope. 1932, Ernst

Lubcke of Siemens & Halske, built and obtain

ernst ruska, german physicist (1906-1988)
Ernst Ruska, german physicist (1906-1988)
ernst ruska, replica of the first electron microscope
Ernst Ruska, replica of the first electron microscope

images from an electron microscope. In 1933,

Ruska built the first electron microscope to

surpass the resolution limit obtainable by a

optical microscope. In 1937 (Four years later),

Ernst Ruska, Bodo von Borries, and employed 

Helmut Ruska, Ernst’s brother, with the help of

Siemens financial support were to develop

applications for the microscope, mostly with

biological specimens. Also in the same year,

Manfred von Ardenne pioneered the scanning

prof. manfred v ardenne
Prof. Manfred V Ardenne
first scanning electron microscope
First Scanning Electron Microscope

electron microscope. In 1938 at the University of

Toronto, Eli Franklin Burton along with other who’s

names are Cecil Hall, James Hillier, and Albert

Prebus, constructed the first north american

microscope. In 1939, Siemens produced an TEM 

(transmission electron microscope). Microscopes

of today are capable of two-million magnification

although all are base on prototypes present from

the ideas from Ernst Ruska.

Types of Microscopes

microscope vector icons set. Isometric set of microscope vector icons for web design

There are many types of microscopes, and they

may be grouped in different ways, a particular

way to describe them is to look at the way the

instruments interact with a sample to create an

image either by sending a beam of light or

electrons to a sample in its optical path, or by

scanning across, and a short distance from the

surface of a sample using a probe. We take a look

at the different types of microscopes.

Science equipment and medical tools to looking micro scale
Science equipment and medical tools to looking micro scale

Optical Microscope

Optical: This is the most common type of

microscope (also the first invented). This is an

optical instrument which contains one or two

lenses producing an enlarged image of a sample

placed in the focal plane.

optical microscope and laboratory supplies on a white table
Optical microscope and laboratory supplies on a white table

Electron Microscopes

Electron: Microscopes that use a beam of

accelerated electrons as there source of light. The

wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000

times shorter than that of visible light photons.

Electron microscopes have a much higher power

input than those which use light, which is good

because the reveal the structure of a specimen.

Electron microscopes use shaped magnetic fields

to form an electron optical lens that are

analogous to the optical lens of an optical

microscope.

science modern laboratory equipment electron microscope
Science modern laboratory equipment electron microscope

Scanning Probes

Scanning Probe: The different types of scanning

probes arise from the many types of interactions

that occur when a small probe is scanned over a 

specimen. These can be recorded or mapped as a

function or location on the surface to form a

characterization map. There are three types of

scanning probe microscopes.

 

confocal optical laser scanning microscope for biological samples investigation
Confocal optical laser scanning microscope for biological samples investigation

Types Of Probes

Atomic Force Probe (AFM)

Atomic Force (AFM): This probe is scanned across

a sample, and the forces that cause an interaction

between the probe and the surface of the sample

is scanned and mapped.

An atomic force microscopes at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the Polish Academy of Science in Krakow

Near-Field Probe

Near-Field: Similar to an AFM, but this probe has

a light source in an optical fiber covered with a tip

that has usually an aperture for light to pass

through. This microscope can capture transmitted

or reflected light to measure localized properties

of the surface, mainly a biological specimen.

witec alpha 300s scanning nearfield optical microscope
Witec Alpha 300S scanning nearfield optical microscope

Scanning-Tunneling Probe

Scanning-Tunneling: A microscope that has a

metal tip with a single apical atom, the

tip has a tube attached to in which the current

flows. The tip is then scanned over the surface

of a sample that conducts electricity until a

current is present, the current is kept in a

constant flow by computer movement of the tip

and an image is formed by recorded

movement of the tip.

Scanning tunneling microscope

How Microscopes Improve Our Lives?

blurred side-view of a student analyzing under microscope
Blurred side-view of a student analyzing under microscope

One example of how microscopes improved our

lives is the improvement in health. Microscopes

have been used to detect diseases such as cancer

and other medical disorders, which helps us

improve our quality of life. Another way

that they’ve improved our lives is by allowing for

better understanding on a cellular

level, thus improving medicine and agriculture (molecular biology). Microscopes also help us to discover

new things. By using microscopy, we are able to see the world in ways that were previously unimaginable

(for example- seeing cells and molecules). In addition, through technology such as electron probes,

scientists have been able to study objects even further than ever before. There is still much more for us to

discover using this technology, and it is exciting that we are able to do so. Microscopes have even helped

us in the field of engineering. With microscopy, engineers can observe how materials react under pressure

(stress testing). This allows them to produce stronger products for consumers. Microscopes allow scientists

and engineers alike to see things that are otherwise invisible to the human eye. This has helped us

improve our lives in many different ways, and there is still much more that we have yet to uncover!

The Future Of Microscopes

lovely day in the laboratory. top view of smiling young female scientist using microscope

Microscopes have very long and rich history by many people either came up with patents, prototypes of

microscopes that are being used today, or breaking the limited of magnification capability, This is a device

is being used an will continue to be used for many generations to come.

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